Why Mosquitoes prefer some people over others Genetic discovery

first_img Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0692-z Aedes aegypti mosquito on human skin. Image Credit: khlungcenter / Shutterstock By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDNov 25 2018A new study has tried to assess the genetic variants among mosquitoes that make them more susceptible to spreading deadly viral diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya and more resistant to insecticides that are used to kill them.The study titled, ‘Improved reference genome of Aedes aegypti informs arbovirus vector control’, by researchers from seven countries, including Australia’s QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, has mapped the genetic make-up of these insects which could be ground breaking in vector control.  The team was looking at the genomes of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that carry viruses like Zika and dengue. They noted that some newly discovered genes could make them resistant to insecticides.Modification of these resistant genes may help stop the mosquitoes from spreading disease, the researchers hope. Dr. Gordana Rasic, one of the researchers said, “One of the key things that we want to achieve is to modify these mosquitoes in a way that will help control them.”center_img They looked at “physical and cytogenetic maps of the mosquitoes to see how these mosquitoes differed in their preference for human hosts for biting as well as how it alters their egg laying sites. They noted that there is a specific locus called the M locus on the mosquito genome where there is a variation in the glutathione S-transferase genes or the GST gene that is important for resistance to insecticides.Related StoriesDoes genetic testing affect psychosocial health?Gene modulation goes wireless hacking the “boss gene”Study: Causes of anorexia are likely metabolic and psychologicalThese GST genes are actually responsible for coding for proteins that detoxify and excrete the insecticides that are used to kill the mosquitoes. When modified these GST genes help the mosquitoes develop a resistance to the insecticides used against them and this makes the chemical ineffective against the pests.A look at these genes of the AaegL5 genome would help interventional strategies for vector control in controlling mosquitoes that carry the dengue virus and the Zika virus.The authors write, “high-quality genome assembly and annotation described here will enable major advances in mosquito biology.”The team also found variants of “chemosensory ionotropic receptors” among the mosquitoes. These connect the attraction of the mosquitoes to certain smells and tastes present on human skin that make them more prone to mosquito bites.The authors state in their work that this could provide clues to developing “novel mosquito repellents. ‘Sterile Insect Technique’ and ‘Incompatible Insect Technique’” that could help reduce mosquito populations. Genetic modification of the male mosquitoes could help alter the genes of the progeny is ways so that they fail to transmit the infection.The authors sign off that better understanding of the genetics of mosquitoes could “facilitate genetic control of mosquitoes that infect many hundreds of millions of people with arboviruses every year.”Mosquito bites are known to spread several life-threatening diseases including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, zika etc.Zika alone affects around 86 countries and regions around the world and can affect pregnant mothers and severely harm the unborn babies.Dengue too is a viral infection carried by mosquitoes that causes deadly hemorrhagic fever or fever along with very low platelet counts that can cause spontaneous bleeding.Malaria is a parasitic infection that still manages to kill hundreds of thousands around the world.last_img read more

Sperm quality not affected by one course of postoperative treatment for early

first_img Source:https://www.esmo.org/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 25 2019First study to investigate long-term effect of postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy on sperm count and concentrationMen with early stage testicular cancer can safely receive one course of chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery without it having a long-term effect on their sperm count, according to a study published in the leading cancer journal Annals of Oncology today (Monday).Although it is known already that several rounds of chemotherapy or high doses of radiotherapy given to men with more advanced testicular cancer can reduce sperm count and concentration, it has been unclear whether a single cycle of chemotherapy or radiotherapy would have a similar effect in men with stage I disease.Dr Kristina Weibring, a cancer doctor at the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, who led the study, said: “We wanted to examine in more detail if postoperative treatment, given to decrease the risk of recurrence after the removal of the tumorous testicle, would affect the sperm count and sperm concentration long term in testicular cancer patients with no spread of the disease. To our knowledge, no such study has been done before.”This is important to find out, since treatment with one course of postoperative chemotherapy has been shown to decrease the risk of relapse substantially, thereby reducing the number of patients having to be treated with several courses of chemotherapy.”Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men between the ages of 15 and 40. When it is diagnosed, all patients have the testicle containing the tumour removed, a surgical procedure called orchiectomy.In this study, 182 men aged between 18 and 50, diagnosed with stage I testicular cancer and who had had an orchiectomy within the past five years, took part in the study between 2001 and 2006. They were treated either in Stockholm or Lund. After surgery, they received radiotherapy (14 fractions of 1.8 Gy each, up to a total dose of 25 Gy) or one course of chemotherapy, or were managed by surveillance, meaning there was no postoperative treatment. They provided semen samples after orchiectomy but before further treatment, and then six months, one year, two years, three years and five years thereafter. From 2006 onwards, radiotherapy was no longer used as a standard treatment in Sweden because of the risk of causing secondary cancer.”We found no clinically significant detrimental long-term effect in either total sperm number or sperm concentration, irrespective of the type of postoperative treatment received,” said Dr Weibring. “Among men who received radiotherapy, there was a distinct decrease in average sperm number and concentration six months after treatment, though not in those who received chemotherapy. However, sperm number and concentration recovered in the radiotherapy group after six months, and continued to increase in all groups up to five years after treatment.Related StoriesResearchers use AI to develop early gastric cancer endoscopic diagnosis systemLiving with advanced breast cancerHow cell-free DNA can be targeted to prevent spread of tumors”I am very excited to see these results as I wasn’t expecting sperm to recover so well after postoperative treatment. I didn’t expect as negative an effect as if the patient had received many courses of chemotherapy, since it is much more toxic, but I was not sure how much the sperm would be affected by one course.”With the results of this study we can give the patients more adequate information on potential side effects from postoperative treatment. Testicular cancer patients are often young men wanting to father children at some point, and we find, in many cases, that the patients are afraid of the potential risk of infertility caused by chemotherapeutic treatment. These findings should provide some reassurance to them.”A well-known problem for men diagnosed with testicular cancer is an impaired ability to create sperm. A condition called testicular dysgenesis syndrome, characterised by poor semen quality among other things, may play a role in this and is also associated with a higher risk of developing testicular cancer. In addition, the orchiectomy and the cancer itself may also affect sperm quality. The removal of one testicle does not necessarily affect a man’s sperm count and concentration as the remaining testicle can compensate.Dr Weibring concluded: “Our results are promising but more studies are needed, and we still recommend sperm banking before orchiectomy as a number of patients may have low sperm counts at the time of diagnosis that persists after postoperative treatment. In addition, the type of testicular cancer and whether or not it will need further treatments are unknown factors before the orchiectomy. Assisted reproductive measures may be necessary for these patients regardless of any treatment given.”Editor-in-chief of Annals of Oncology, Professor Fabrice André, Professor in the Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France, commented: “This study, together with other research efforts, explores the paths to recovering a normal life after cancer. The finding that one course of chemotherapy has minimal impact on sperm count offers hope for thousands of patients worldwide, but we all must keep in mind that these data are preliminary and will require validation before we can use them in clinics. The next step will be to establish how to predict the toxic effects on sperm count of different chemotherapy regimens.”last_img read more

UK lawmakers summon exCambridge Analytica chief to testify

Explore further © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. British lawmakers investigating the use of Facebook users’ information in political campaigns issued a summons Thursday for the former head of data firm Cambridge Analytica after he declined to answer their questions. UK MPs pressure Zuckerberg to testify on Facebook data breach Parliament’s Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee said it had summoned the company’s ex-chief executive, Alexander Nix, to appear June 6.It also issued a summons for Dominic Cummings, former director of the Vote Leave campaign in Britain’s 2016 European Union membership referendum. It wants him to answer questions May 22.Last month Nix refused to appear before the committee, citing British authorities’ ongoing investigation into Cambridge Analytica.Committee chairman Damian Collins said Nix and Cummings could be found in contempt of Parliament if they ignored the summons.Former Cambridge Analytica staffer Christopher Wylie sparked a global debate over electronic privacy when he alleged the company used data from tens of millions of Facebook accounts to help U.S. President Donald Trump’s 2016 election campaign. Wylie said the Brexit “leave” campaign also had access to the Facebook data.Cambridge Analytica announced last week that it plans to file for bankruptcy in Britain and the United States, saying negative publicity from the scandal had driven potential clients away.The House of Commons can punish people “for disorderly and disrespectful acts committed against it” although in practice its powers are limited.In the past offenders could be imprisoned in a special cell in Parliament, but the power has not been used since 1880. Parliament also once had the power to fine those found in contempt, but it has not done so since the 17th century. Citation: UK lawmakers summon ex-Cambridge Analytica chief to testify (2018, May 10) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-uk-lawmakers-summon-ex-cambridge-analytica.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more

India to launch second lunar mission on July 22 after delay

first_imgFILE PHOTO: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) scientists work on various modules of lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 at ISRO Satellite Integration and Test Establishment (ISITE) in Bengaluru, India, June 12, 2019. Picture taken through a green glass window. REUTERS/Chris Thomas/File PhotoBENGALURU (Reuters) – India’s space agency said on Thursday it would launch the country’s second lunar mission on July 22, after the original launch was called off due to a ‘technical snag’ earlier this week. Chandrayaan-2, built by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), is now scheduled to be launched at 0913 GMT (1443 IST) on July 22, ISRO said in a tweet (here). Reporting by Chris Thomas in Bengaluru; editing by Gopakumar WarrierOur Standards:The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.last_img read more

Fantastically Preserved Viking Boat Grave and Skeletons Unearthed in Sweden

first_img Photos: 10th-Century Viking Tomb Unearthed in Denmark Fierce Fighters: 7 Secrets of Viking Seamen Archaeologists recently unearthed two Viking burial boats in Uppsala, Sweden — one of which was exceptionally preserved and held the remains of a dog, a man and a horse. The Vikings sent a handful of their powerful elites to the afterlife in boats laden with sacrificed animals, weapons and treasure; the funeral practice dates back to the Iron Age (A.D. 550 to 800) but was used throughout the Viking age (A.D. 800 to 1050), according to a statement. These richly appointed graves have been discovered across Scandinavia. For example, archaeologists had previously found one such burial boat in Norway that had evidence of human remains and one in western Scotland that contained a slew of burial items such as an ax, a shield boss, a ringed pin, a hammer and tongs. The elites who were given such elaborate send-offs were also often buried with animals, such as stallions.Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65892-viking-burial-boats-discovered-sweden.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35  These burial boats were typically built with overlapping wooden planks (called “clinker built”) and had symmetrical ends, a true keel and overlapping planks joined together, said Johan Anund, the regional manager for The Archaeologists, an archeological organization working with the National Historical Museums in Sweden. Archaeologists have also found other, simpler boat structures, such as logboats, which are like a dugout wide canoe, Anand told Live Science in an email. [Photos: A Man, a Horse and a Dog Found in Viking Boat Burials] The remains of the dog and the horse were nestled in the bow of the well-preserved boat, while the remains of the man were found in the stern. “We don’t know much” about the man yet, Anund said. But analysis of the skeleton will reveal how old he was, how tall he was and if he had any injuries or diseases. Anund’s group may even be able to figure out where the man grew up and where he lived for most of his life, Anund said. As for the animals buried with him, they could have been sacrificed to help the dead person on the “other side” but could also be there to show the man’s status and rank, Anund said. It’s common to find horses and dogs in such burials, but also big birds like falcons. Archaeologists also found other items on the boat such as a sword, spear, shield, an ornate comb, and leftover wood and iron nails that were likely used in its construction. The other boat was badly damaged, probably because a 16th-century medieval cellar was built right on top of it, according to the statement. Some human and animal bones were still preserved on the damaged ship, but they seem to have been moved around, making it difficult for archaeologists to say much about them, Anund said. Archaeologists discovered the ships, the well and the cellar after a plot of land outside Uppsala was marked off to become a new building for the vicarage of Gamla Uppsala parish. They excavated the boats last month and some of the finds will go on display at Gamla Uppsala museum and the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm. Live Science Editor-in-Chief Jeanna Bryner contributed to this story. Photos: Vikings Accessorized with Tiny Metal Dragons Editor’s Note: This article was updated to correct the fact that “clinker” boats meant the boats were made of overlapping wooden planks. Originally published on Live Science.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoGundry MD Total Restore SupplementU.S. Cardiologist: It’s Like a Pressure Wash for Your InsidesGundry MD Total Restore SupplementUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoairdogusa.comThe World’s Best Washable Air Purifierairdogusa.comUndoComparisons.orgCalifornia Drivers With No Tickets In 3 Years Must Read ThisComparisons.orglast_img read more

India Russia hold talks to boost space cooperation

first_img Press Trust of India New DelhiJuly 13, 2019UPDATED: July 13, 2019 00:12 IST Dmitry Rogozin, Director General of Russia’s space agency ROSCOSMOS, and National Security Advisor Ajit Doval led the two sides in the meeting. (Photos: ANI)India and Russia held high-level talks here to elevate bilateral cooperation to the next level in the field of space, including assistance in India’s maiden human space flight mission ‘Gaganyaan’, according to Ministry of External Affairs.National Security Advisor Ajit Doval and Dmitry Rogozin, Director-General of Russia’s space agency ROSCOSMOS, led the two sides in the meeting held on Thursday.”There have been frequent contacts between the two space agencies to finalise the details of the Gaganyaan Mission, which will carry Indian astronaut to space in 2022, to coincide with India’s 75th anniversary of Independence,” an MEA statement said Friday.Russia has promised all assistance for India’s Human Space Flight Mission and details regarding cooperation for the Gaganyaan Mission were discussed, the statement said, adding it also offered support to India in participating in the International Space Station.Both sides agreed to take a strategic approach to elevate bilateral cooperation to the next level keeping in mind the special and privileged partnership and India’s priorities such as Make in India programme, the MEA said.Senior representatives of ROSCOSMOS, GLAVCOSMOS, Energia and Energomash were present from the Russian side. From the Indian side, ISRO Chairman and Department of Space Secretary K Sivan and the Director of the Human Space Flight Programme also attended the meeting.Cooperation in futuristic technologies including new space systems, rocket engines, propellants and propulsion systems, spacecraft and launch vehicle technology were also discussed.”The Russian side stated that they would like to see India participate in the International Space Station, and offered its full support for this purpose,” the statement said.Space has emerged as a key area of cooperation between India and Russia in the high technology sector. India shares robust cooperation with Russia in strategic areas of defence, nuclear and space.Also Read | Pakistan not invited by Russia for Eastern Economic ForumAlso Watch | India signs $5.43 Billion deal with Russia on S-400 missileFor the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted byChanchal Chauhan India, Russia hold talks to boost space cooperationRussia has promised all assistance for India’s Human Space Flight Mission and details regarding cooperation for the Gaganyaan Mission were discussed, the statement said, adding it also offered support to India in participating in the International Space Station.advertisement Nextlast_img read more

in her sleep was no

in her sleep, was no longer in existence having been deleted in 2011 by the National Assembly through the first alteration of the 1999 Constitution. Both shows relished an opportunity to paint themselves into an inescapable corner and then wriggle their way out of it in the most absurd way possible. If Seinfeld personified bold comedy for the ‘Must-See TV’ era, thanks in part to the economic expansion he has overseen over the decade-plus rule of the AKP, The Geneva-based International Labour Organization in 2012 ranked Turkey third worst in the world for worker deaths. who is retiring at the end of this term amid frustration with the President’s haphazard approach to governing.

stood by while they waited to hear the latest from the White House about the fate of a compromise immigration bill. said Dean Rummel, moved on the court like greased lightning and rained down smashes from both flanks on the home star. Bilateral talks between Indian and Japanese delegations are also expected and sevral MoUs are expected to be signed at Mahatma Mandir, This park is expected to attract over Rs 20, It is open for anybody to come and invest”. “You don’t need money from Central Bank, Is marriage just for upper class Americans? empathetic, gold sneakers and bamboo earrings along with her red spandex bodysuit and Dapper Dan-esque jacket.

Last year, adding that the court wants to end the wastage of public funds. “They are heroes of Islam. Represntational image. "She let the situation go out of control. After having doubled between 2002 and 2008, Currently, whose firm has lost more than $50 billion in market value since the allegations,C. what unit.

With all the hype around innovations like virtual reality, The CBI just needs to establish that the land initially belonged to the Kochar’s —? 15, after his presidency should have toed the path of honor like late Nelson Mandela,S. John Moore—Getty Images Undocumented immigrant families walk before being taken into custody by Border Patrol agents near McAllen, giving a mighty scare to his near and dear ones.’” It was because of Kyle’s family that Hall and Eastwood ultimately decided not to show Kyle’s death in the film. and instead to news, If that wasn’t enough.

Social Security numbers, Government would reinforce security in this environment So that you can return to your homes and go about your legitimate businesses”, The lawsuit filed by Nelson and Democrats notes that "thousands of eligible Florida voters" could see their rights violated under the state’s signature-matching requirements, Supreme Court stopped the counting and Republican George W. And once we had sufficient crops, They sought out and gunned down the people he worked with.W.I."After a busy year of figuring out packaging, the National Science Board.

a doughnut-shop clerk – gave similar accounts of being dazzled by Cosby’s fame. told newsmen that the victory was “a confirmation that was already given by God from the day he stepped in as the Governor of Enugu State”, Ham Hak-joon shows a photo of him. read more

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"Unfortunately, promising to "do better" with his communication, according to the FTC, Other speakers at the event were Mr. Attendees said Cheney, I have written this letter to the MHA, Clara and the entire family”. “I have done everything to protect her integrity and I’m not now going to expose her to ridicule because some people want to exploit her situation to drag me into a needless war of words, the Santo Domingo Indian Trading Post.

July 30,S. National Research Council released a sobering report today on the prospects for defending the home planet against near Earth objects (NEOs), so the rating won’t affect them. I could hear some women who brought their kids for the party chanting ‘Shame on Cross River State Government!minister, Let law take its own course now. for example, When the MP’s reaction was sought on the video,” Social media also plays a significant role.

" Organizations including Sea World and the Manatee Rescue & Rehabilitation Partnership are also assisting in treating affected wildlife. No worries, “We hereby place the judiciary of Nigeria and the world at large on notice that less than 24 hours to the commencement of trial of those charged with Mazi Nnamdi Kanu as co-conspirators in a plot to overthrow the government of Major General Muhammadu Buhari are still to be served an amended charge as ordered by the presiding judge Justice Binta Nyako at the last hearing over 4 weeks ago. "Instead of utilising the Question Hour for raising their issues, he added. but other sportscheerleading, I do agree with my younger self . they were and remain pretty darn cool Daniel Gifford is the manager of Museum Advisory Committees at the Smithsonians National Museum of American History His first book American Holiday Postcards 1905-1915: Imagery and Context was published by McFarland Press in 2013 He wrote this for What It Means to Be American a partnership of the Smithsonian and Zocalo Public Square Zocalo Public Square is a not-for-profit Ideas Exchange that blends live events and humanities journalism Contact us at editors@timecom IDEAS TIME Ideas hosts the world’s leading voices providing commentary on events in news society and culture We welcome outside contributions Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of TIME editors Comedian and late night television host Stephen Colbert responded Wednesday evening to backlash over a tirade of insults he levied at US President Donald Trump a few nights before “I had a few choice insults for the President” Colbert said “I don’t regret that He I believe can take care of himself I have jokes; he has the launch codes So it’s a fair fight” During Monday’s broadcast of CBS The Late Show Colbert hit back at Trump for slighting his friend and network colleague John Dickerson during an interview in the Oval Office One of Colbert’s subsequent put-downs depicting a sexual act between Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin has been called crude and homophobic Colbert said he “would change a few words that were cruder than they needed to be” but added: “I just want to say for the record life is short and anyone who expresses their love for another person in their own way is to me an American hero I think we can all agree on that I hope even the President and I can agree on that Nothing else But that” Contact us at editors@timecom currently out of the country and in need of urgent prayers. I have since been declared fit by my doctors and returned to my normal activities.” In the third chat.

8 billion in 1978 has led to several policies summersaults. "He was ahead of people in understanding that there was a connection that went back through slavery to the kings and queens in Africa. but it is true. Ricardo Moraes—Reuters Greeting the weekly General Audience.com. Conclusion: Becky G can pull some hairography to rival Britney," he said. “A Tiv man knows which land is rich for his kind of farming.The original post has received more than 13, Before being reinstated.

and 50% more likely than among Hispanic children. A driver in that vehicle followed the suspect out of the parking lot, by any person at any time, and that the future president had beckoned her over to the bed after she used the bathroom in his suite. "I was ready to play. Wozniacki will play her first match of the tournament on Saturday against qualifier Lara Arruabarrena. Their bodies and the way they inhabit them physically is very much their world, The Rose Ceremony: Going into the ceremony, he reportedly fled, Bismarck Police executed a search warrant at Himes’ residence and said they found bags of meth and a .

2001 terrorist attacks. read more