Mouthing off

first_img“Consumers are showing signs of fatigue of celebrity marketing. The cult of celebrity has reached a crossroads – over-exposed celebrities have saturated the market and ageing populations mean that the growth audience is shrinking.”Marketers must therefore pursue new tactics to avoid the pitfalls that are associated with celebrity-backed campaigns or celebrity-branded consumer packaged goods”- from a new report by market analyst Datamonitor. Hovis’ new ad agency, Miles Calcraft Briginshaw Duffy, take a bow (see opposite)”We want to see shops opening, not more cafés. We want to see something different in Havant to attract people here”- Hampshire retailer Carol Fletcher, quoted in The Mirror, where the small town was reported to be ’in revolt’ after 15 coffee shops have opened in its centre. There is now talk of another Starbucks opening. Man the barricades…last_img read more

Climate engineering: In from the cold

first_imgWhen the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released a pair of reports this month on geoengineering, which involves deliberately intervening in the climate system to counter global warming, discussion of the controversial topic moved into the mainstream science community. The reports concluded that geoengineering is no silver bullet, and that further research is needed.David Keith, Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics at Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and professor of public policy at Harvard Kennedy School, has been a leading voice for assessing the risks and implications of large-scale deployment of geoengineering to help cool the planet. Keith’s 2013 book, “A Case for Climate Engineering,” lays out how geoengineering might fit into a larger program for managing climate change (complementing steps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and devise adaptation strategies). He recently detailed a potential small-scale solar radiation management experiment in which chemicals would be dispersed in the high atmosphere to reflect sunlight away from the Earth’s surface. He also has suggested a scenario for analyzing the risks and benefits of geoengineering, and proposed frameworks for the governance of geoengineering testing by nation-states.In a question-and-answer session, Keith spoke about what impact the new reports may have on the policy and science of geoengineering. Eliza Grinnell/SEAS CommunicationsQUESTION: What is the significance of the National Academy taking up this topic?KEITH: The academy has dealt with geoengineering as a part of broader energy and climate studies since the late 1970s, but this is the first report devoted to the topic. It serves as a marker of the extent to which solar geoengineering is becoming a more normal part of the science and policy of climate change.QUESTION: Do the NAS studies bring us closer to deployment of small-scale geoengineering experiments?KEITH: By endorsing research on solar geoengineering and explicitly including a discussion of small-scale experiments along with a discussion of their scientific merits and possible regulation, I believe the academy has made it easier for government agencies to fund such research. Many program managers in U.S. government science agencies have been favorably inclined to fund research on solar geoengineering but have been held back by a sense that they needed a high-level political OK. My hope is that this report will, de facto, give program managers the confidence to move ahead with science funding even in the absence of an explicit new program.QUESTION: You’ve made the point that governance of geoengineering is paramount. Do you see a path for establishing international consensus on how to regulate efforts in this area?KEITH: Consensus, no. But little or nothing is done in the international arena with full consensus. A more reasonable goal is alignment of a coalition of countries that represent a reasonable cross-section of the world, north and south, east and west. Such a coalition might support a broad research program through various mechanisms, from a simple memorandum of understanding to information exchange, which could be a useful first step on the road to multilateral control.QUESTION: Geoengineering opponents cite the moral hazard argument — that pursuing these approaches will shift the focus away from efforts to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases that cause warming. Do the NAS reports address this?KEITH: Not in a deep way, but that is a hard ask. The fundamental job of the academy is to provide assessment about the state of science, including social science, and about the prospects for research.QUESTION: To what extent are the obstacles to an informed policy on geoengineering technical, and to what extent are they social or political?KEITH: I think the fundamental obstacles are social and political. There is deep concern that any attention to geoengineering will inevitably weaken the political force needed to cut emissions. This is a sensible concern, but not an excuse for deliberate ignorance. If solar geoengineering can provide a meaningful reduction in climate risks for the most vulnerable people and ecosystems, we must take it seriously. It is plausible that the combination of emissions reductions and geoengineering will provide a substantially better environmental outcome than emission reductions alone, and that this fact will make it easier to develop a sustained commitment to reduce emissions.QUESTION: Some climate engineering proponents argue that approaches like solar radiation management (SRM) have the potential to buy time to make real progress on reducing carbon emissions. Is that the strongest argument for pursuing SRM?KEITH: Absolutely not. I think this is one of the weakest arguments. The strong argument is that solar geoengineering provides the only known way to substantially reduce climate risk over the next half century.last_img read more

Vermont Railway, Inc to pay $120,000 for hazardous waste management violations

first_imgVermont Rail System,Vermont Railway, Inc, a Burlington-based company that operates rail lines throughout Vermont, has agreed to pay $70,000 in civil penalties and $50,000 to fund a Supplemental Environmental Project (SEP) to settle claims that the company violated Vermont’s hazardous waste management laws at its Burlington and Rutland facilities.‘Companies handling hazardous materials and wastes in Vermont must comply with the State environmental laws to protect the public and the environment,’ said Attorney General William H. Sorrell. “Companies that fail to follow the law will be held accountable,” Attorney General Sorrell added.The violations were discovered during inspections by the Agency of Natural Resources in 2008 at the company’s Burlington and Rutland rail yards, and included the failure to properly store, label and manage hazardous wastes. As part of the settlement, Vermont Railway admitted the violations and agreed to implement compliance measures to prevent hazardous material spills at its Vermont facilities. The SEP payments will fund (1) the purchase of firefighting materials and spill response equipment for four fire departments in areas of high rail traffic in the Vermont and (2) a training exercise involving a simulated release of hazardous materials from a rail car.The Pleadings by Agreement and Stipulation for Entry of Consent Order and Consent Order were filed with the Superior Court, Civil Division, Washington Unit. Judge Geoffrey W. Crawford approved the settlement on November 3, 2010. Source: Vermont Attorney General. November 5, 2010last_img read more

Citizens Bank fined for alleged unfair, deceptive deposit practices

first_img 13SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr Actions by federal regulatory agencies against Citizens Bank require the bank to pay more than $37 million in civil money penalties and restitution, the agencies announced Wednesday.The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) and Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) coordinated actions against the Philadelphia-based bank for unfair and deceptive practices.The agencies allege Citizens failed to credit consumers the full amount of deposited funds, keeping the money from deposit discrepancies when receipts did not match the actual money transferred. Roughly 475,000 accounts were affected.An investigation found that from Jan. 1, 2008, to Nov. 30, 2013, the bank failed to take action in cases where the bank’s scanner either misread checks or a deposit slip. From January 2008 to September 2012, the mistake was not remedied if it fell below $50, and from September 2012 to November 2013 that number was $25. continue reading »last_img read more

NextGen Know-How: Take charge of your productivity

first_img continue reading » If you’re like most leaders, you spend your days rushing around dealing with emergencies, challenges, meetings and emails. Your days seem like a blur, and you struggle to articulate what you accomplished in your 10-plus hours at the office. But this doesn’t have to be the norm.One of the biggest challenges leaders face at work are interruptions. Phone calls and texts, emails pinging all day, employees dropping in for “a quick question”—these interruptions take a serious toll on your productivity. Experts say the typical office worker wastes 40 to 60 percent of their day on interruptions.There are a plethora of distractions that impede getting real work done. As an entrepreneur, my office is in my house. There are no people there during the work day, but there are dishes in the sink, toys on the floor and papers to be filed. Even looking at these distractions hinders my focus and concentration. When I have a big project or an article to write (like this one) that requires me to focus, I often go to a coffee shop so I can get in the zone and not get distracted by non-urgent things. Surprisingly, the buzz of the coffee shop also helps my concentration. I get more done in two hours there than I do all day in my office. 8SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblrlast_img read more

Which Voters Show Up When States Allow Early Voting?

first_imgSign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York By Sarah Smith, ProPublicaAccording to the National Conference of State Legislatures, 37 states now offer voters some way to cast ballots early and avoid lining up at the polls on Election Day.These options are popular. About one-third of voters made use of them in the 2012 election.There is no act more central to a democracy than voting. Electionland is a project that will cover access to the ballot and problems that prevent people from exercising their right to vote during the 2016 election. Read more and sign up.But so-called “convenience voting” remains controversial: In some states, various types of early balloting has been challenged on grounds that it opens the door to fraud, though there’s been little evidence that such fraud is taking place.Supporters of early voting say partisan politics is what really drives the objections. Research shows early voting increases turnout by 2 percent to 4 percent. In some cases, it particularly boosts voting among minorities, a constituency that tends to vote Democrat.A GOP consultant acknowledged as much after a federal judge struck down North Carolina’s effort to curtail some kinds of convenience voting on the basis that legislators had targeted measures that disproportionately aided African Americans.“Look, if African Americans voted overwhelmingly Republican, they would have kept early voting right where it was,” the consultant, Carter Wrenn, told the Washington Post. “It wasn’t about discriminating against African Americans. They just ended up in the middle of it because they vote Democrat.”We took a look at some convenience voting tactics and what they do—or don’t do—for turnout, particularly in minority communities:In-person Absentee VotingThis form of early voting has a confusing name but an easy concept: Voters get a ballot before Election Day and turn it in at a designated place. The ballot is counted with other absentee ballots. This is also known as in-person early voting or early in-person voting.The Brennan Center for Justice reported that 14 percent of voters in nine of the top-turnout states with in-person absentee as an option used it in 2012, up from 13 percent in 2008 and 8.4 percent in 2004. Political science research hasn’t come to a consensus on what it does for overall turnout: A study out of the University of Wisconsin found that in-person absentee voting actually decreased participation.Other studies have shown that in-person absentee voting has boosted black turnout, in part because some states allow people to submit votes on the weekend. This has enabled African-American churches’ “Souls to the Polls” initiatives, in which churchgoers are transported straight from the pews to the ballot box.A paper examining the effects of Florida’s early voting patterns in the 2008 election showed that African Americans were more likely to cast in-person absentee ballots than white voters. African Americans made up 13 percent of registered voters in Florida, but cast 22 percent of the in-person absentee votes.The same pattern holds true in Ohio, which has been embroiled in litigation over cuts to the state’s “Golden Week” of early voting. A 2015 paper showed that restricting in-person absentee voting in Ohio would have disparate impacts on different racial groups and that African Americans would be hardest hit by such cuts.No-excuse Absentee VotingEvery state allows people who cannot get to polling places for specific reasons – illness or disability, military service, etc. – to mail in absentee ballots before the election.Some 27 states — plus the District of Columbia — also let residents vote by absentee ballot without providing a reason.The first states allowing no-excuse absentee voting—California, Oregon and Washington—did so in the 1980s and other states followed suit in the following decades. An early study in the 1990s found that opening up absentee voting can lead to a small increase in turnout, but since then research hasn’t shown that it has a significant impact on how many people vote.Vote By MailOregon, Washington and Colorado conduct elections entirely by mail, sending out ballots to all eligible voters and giving them until Election Day to mail them back in.Oregon was the first state to conduct its elections by mail after a ballot measure passed in 1998. Washington, which had allowed counties to choose whether to conduct elections regularly or by mail, switched to an entirely postal system in 2011. Colorado followed in 2013.The first wave of vote-by-mail studies found a huge jump in turnout, ranging from 10 to 19 percent. But as voters settled into the new laws, follow-up studies showed significantly less impact. A 2007 study in Washington found a 5 percent impact. A study in Switzerland, conducted from 1970 to 2005, saw a turnout increase of 4.1 percent.There’s also no indication that these modest increases are skewed toward any particular racial or ethnic group.In addition to the various modes of early voting, there’s a couple more way states make it more convenient to vote:Same-day RegistrationIn at least 13 states and the District of Columbia, voters can show up at polling stations on Election Day, register and vote (some states such as Maryland only allow same-day registration during early voting). In addition, Utah passed a 2014 bill enacting a pilot project of same-day registration; the project will continue through 2016.To register and vote at the same time, voters typically must show proof of residency (such as a driver’s license or, in some states, a utility bill) and provide an ID to verify their identity (photo or non-photo, depending on the state).Groups that advocate for same-day registration say it not only eases access, but also solves the problem of inaccurate voter rolls from which people who move frequently might have purged or left off. According to a study from Demos, one such group, same-day registration can increase turnout from 3 percent to 6 percent. Pew Charitable Trusts found that one in eight voters in states with same-day registration used it in the 2012 election.Not having to register in advance appears to boost minority voting disproportionately. In North Carolina, African-American voters accounted for 35 percent of those who used same-day registration in 2012, though African Americans made up only 22 percent of the electorate, according to PBS.While voters who move frequently tend to be younger, and younger voters tend to vote Democrat, that’s not always the case. A 2012 study looking at Wisconsin’s same-day registration found that while it increased turnout, it actually decreased Democrats’ share of the presidential vote.North Carolina passed a law banning same-day registration in 2013, but it has since been overturned.Automatic RegistrationFive states have recently approved automatic voter registration, which registers citizens who come into contact with government agencies (often at a DMV) to vote unless they opt out.Oregon passed the first major automatic registration law in 2015. Currently, 29 states and the District of Columbia have bills pending that would implement automatic registration, according to the Brennan Center for Justice.While it’s too soon to have significant studies on how automatic registration affects turnout, advocates contend the practice not only makes elections more accessible, but saves money and improves the accuracy of voter rolls.ProPublica is a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative newsroom. Sign up for their newsletter.last_img read more

Governor Wolf Signs Bill Aimed at Increasing Public Awareness of Prostate Cancer

first_img Bill Signing,  Press Release,  Public Health Harrisburg, PA – Today, Governor Wolf ceremoniously signed SB 609, sponsored by Senator Bob Mensch. This bill creates greater public awareness of measures available to detect, diagnose and treat prostate cancer and related chronic prostate conditions.“As many of you know, earlier this week I underwent an outpatient procedure to treat my prostate cancer. My case was diagnosed early,” said Governor Tom Wolf. “Fortunately, that early detection allowed me to have the opportunity to make decisions and schedule an effective treatment. My case was diagnosed as a result of a routine checkup, which is why SB 609 is an extremely important bill”The legislation directs the Department of Health to establish a 19-member task force on prostate cancer and related chronic prostate conditions to investigate and make recommendations. It creates greater public awareness of the measures available to detect, diagnose and treat prostate cancer and related chronic prostate conditions and directs the Department of Health to establish a 19-member task force on prostate cancer and related chronic prostate conditions to investigate and make recommendationsIt will help medical professionals, insurers, patients, governmental agencies, and patients have accurate knowledge about screening, diagnosis and treatment options for prostate cancer.“Legislation that I sponsored, now Act 66 of November 2015, established a Prostate Cancer Task Force with the purpose of investigating, raising awareness and making recommendations concerning prostate cancer and prostate cancer related conditions,” said Senator Mensch.  “The findings of this task force will be invaluable to the health of all men and can be a model for other states. We need to take these recommendations from the task force and act on them to further help those suffering with this terrible disease.”“I am very thankful that my doctors caught my cancer quickly and have worked with me to plan a treatment schedule that will address my medical issues while serving the people of Pennsylvania,” said Governor Wolf. “I want to encourage everyone in Pennsylvania to make sure they schedule regular checkups with their doctors and are aware of screening guidelines so early detection and treatment can be possible.”The following are current members of the task force:Sharon Sowers, Plan and Policy Development Section Chief; Pennsylvania Department of HealthPeter Speaks, Deputy Secretary for Regulatory Programs; Department of StateDavid Bruno, Consumer Liaison; Pennsylvania Insurance DepartmentDavid Galinsky, Chief Medical Officer; Pennsylvania Department of AgingBarry Wingard. MD, Medical Director; Office of Medical Assistance ProgramsAngelo A Baccala Jr., MD, Chief, Division of Urology; LVPG Urology, Lehigh Valley Health NetworkBenjamin Davies, MD, Associate Professor of Urology; University of Pittsburgh, School of MedicineEric Horwitz, MD, Chair, Radiation Oncology Department; Fox Chase Cancer CenterChristopher Peters, MD, Partner of Raditation Med. Associates of Scranton (RAMAS), Medical Director of NE Raditation Oncology Center, Chair of Department of Radiation Oncology, Chair of Cancer Committee Board of Directors; Northeast Radiation Oncology Center-DunmoreCharnita Ziegler-Johnson, PhD, MPH, Asst. Professor, Thomas Jefferson UniversityTheda Shaw, RN, MSN, Genitourinary Program Coordinator, Penn State Hershey Cancer InstituteJames Williams, Col. (Ret.), Chairman, PA Prostate Cancer CoalitionJerry Bortman, Survivor AdvocateAlan Schein, MD, Family member of Prostate Cancer patient Governor Wolf Signs Bill Aimed at Increasing Public Awareness of Prostate Cancer Like Governor Tom Wolf on Facebook: June 16, 2016 SHARE Email Facebook Twitterlast_img read more

Kewarra Beach beauty designed for FNQ lifestyle

first_imgParadise: 27 Kewarra St, Kewarra Beach.A HOME that brings out the best of life in Far North Queensland is on the market for $1.4 million.This Kewarra Beach beauty has it all – a large parcel of land at a whopping 2018sq m, beachfront access and a beautifully designed home with quality finishes.It is simply paradise, according to selling agent Renee Straguszi-Smith of Cairns Property Office. Light and bright. Finishes of 27 Kewarra St are top quality.The owner and occupier is a HIA multi-award-winning Cairns builder, who gave the home a top-to-bottom overhaul, resulting in the stunning masterpiece it is today.“The reason they bought the property is because of the direct beach access,” Ms Straguszi-Smith said. “There is a pathway that takes you directly to the beach. “This family has loved living there. This is the best of what Far North Queensland has to offer in regards to beachside living. Towering melaleuca trees are a highlight of this property. Quality 2pac kitchen with stone benchtops. The perfect entertainer.“Smithfield is 10 minutes away, schools are close by and so are all amenities.”The home is “all about lifestyle”, according to Ms Straguszi-Smith.“It’s definitely for a family that loves getting outdoors, going away with their caravans or out to the reefs or on the inlet if they’ve got boats. “It’s the kind of home where you could come home for a barbecue and have some friends over for a swim.“As you enter the property you are blown away by the stunning melaleuca backdrop, private resort-style living and modern renovation throughout with no expense spared.”The property is also designed for the lover of big boy toys and weekend warriors, with the “ultimate undercover caravan, boat and vehicle accommodation”.The home’s bragging rights include an ultra-modern kitchen overlooking the pristine gardens and entertainment area with custom two-pack cabinets and chef grade integrated appliance, along with spacious stone counter-tops with plenty of bench space. Get clean in style.More from newsCairns home ticks popular internet search terms2 days agoTen auction results from ‘active’ weekend in Cairns2 days agoThe home is freshly painted inside with all new fans, lighting and insulated.All the bedrooms are large, have built-in wardrobes and are all airconditioned.The design brings a seamless indoor and outdoor integration for an open, functional layout with multiple living zones, modern and spacious bathrooms with double vanities and quality fixtures.Step outside and the property is fully fenced with electric gate and side access. The quarter acre flat block is beautifully manicured with low-maintenance landscaping with integrated sprinkler systems.The backyard houses a 6 x 6m shed, with power and water.As for the resort-style pool, it’s a showstopper. It hugs the house with frameless glass fencing.Ms Straguszi-Smith said coronavirus may have slowed the real estate industry but had not put a stop to it, with Cairns Property Office signing 11 contracts in 12 days at the time of print. “They are still buyers out there,” she said.“I love getting good results for the vendor and seeing people walk in for the first time and say ‘Oh my God I want to live here and this to be our forever home’ and to see those emotions.” FOR SALE: $1.4 million INSPECT: Saturday and Sunday, May 16-17. 3-4pm AGENT: Renee Straguszi-Smith, Cairns Property Office, 0408 770 741last_img read more

Conservative young cautious on sex education

first_imgSunday Star Times 8 Jan 2012Sex education could be too much for conservative Kiwi youths, a new poll has found. A nationwide poll of 600 people aged 15-21 found they held conservative views on sex issues. Only 19 per cent agreed that schools should teach safe sex, rather than abstinence and the consequences of sex, while 42 per cent wanted a combination of both – especially older teenagers. The poll was done by Curia Market Research for Family First New Zealand – a conservative values lobby group. Director Bob McCoskrie said the results were a direct reproach from young people against “safe sex” messages around condoms, and that “everyone is doing it”. “Many parents were horrified last year when details of what was being taught surfaced. Sex education has been an utter failure.” He said New Zealand had one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the OECD, disease rates were “out of control”, and the number of teenage abortions continued to rise at the same time as some groups were saying as long as a condom was used you could do what you liked in terms of “promiscuity, experimentation, and fringe behaviours”.Family Planning chief executive Jackie Edmond said it was no surprise young people wanted comprehensive sex education. “Young people do better with sex education that is a whole range of components, not just one.” But she said no organisation advocated safe sex alone, and lessons included being taught about negotiation, delay and relationship management. the response???Lift in teen STDsNewstalk ZB 8 Jan 2012There is a feeling changing the way teenagers are taught sex education would see a lift in the number of young people with STDs. Lobby group Family First have made calls to revamp the way sex education is taught in schools. The calls follow a recent survey of 600 15 to 21 year olds, which quizzed them about sex education, the rights of the unborn child, and teenage pregnancies. Youth health expert Sue Bagshaw says telling kids they cannot do something makes them more likely to do it. She says research shows teenagers in the US who’ve had the abstinence message preached to them are more likely to go out and run amok read more

Ethical Case for Abolishing all Forms of Surrogacy

first_imgStopSurrogacyNow November 2017Family First Comment: The NZ Herald is currently pushing this issue without a countering view. Here’s one (of many)….“Scientific studies prove that maternal-neonate separation in the crucial months after birth disturbs the baby’s heart rate and sleep and other biological systems, predisposing the child to difficulties later in life which can include relationship and emotional difficulties, mental disorders and illnesses. In taking a child-centered view of surrogacy, we must take into account what we know of the trauma and confusion of separation from the natural family, especially from the birth mother, experienced by adoptees….“The gestational mother is the only person the child knows when they are born. For every single child, their “mother” is acknowledged as the woman who created that baby by taking them from embryo to fully formed infant, throughout nine months of symbiotic gestation, establishing that person’s first relationship with a human adult, the destruction of which damages both mother and child. The gestational mother is the natural parent of her own child, whether or not she used her own eggs or implanted a donor embryo.”All surrogacy is cruel to human infants because even so-called “altruistic surrogacy” demands the removal of the neonate from her or his gestational mother when every aspect, every cell, every desire of that neonate, is geared toward being on the body of the gestational mother, to suckle and seek comfort and safety.As an adoptee, I was removed at birth from my gestational mother, her breasts bound for three days in another room while I screamed for her, and my hospital records record my growing distress. Adoptees around the world testify to their battles with depression and rage, difficulties in trusting and attachment, and a profound sense of loss and grief caused by the loss of their mothers at birth. Scientific studies prove that maternal-neonate separation in the crucial months after birth disturbs the baby’s heart rate and sleep and other biological systems, predisposing the child to difficulties later in life which can include relationship and emotional difficulties, mental disorders and illnesses. In taking a child-centered view of surrogacy, we must take into account what we know of the trauma and confusion of separation from the natural family, especially from the birth mother, experienced by adoptees.The argument that surrogacy can be ethical, as long as it is not commercial and is done “altruistically” for a relative or friend, does not hold up under inquiry. Kajsa Ekis Ekman in Being and Being Bought: Prostitution, Surrogacy and the Split Self points out that “if the procedure is legalised a woman will bear a child as laid out in a contract—the risk that a black market will develop increases . . . Just as trafficking is a consequence of prostitution, commercial and altruistic surrogacy are different levels on the same scale.” In Australia, Ekman’s claim has been borne out. We are the largest consumers of overseas surrogacy despite altruistic surrogacy remaining legal in Australia. Americans and Britons are also dominant among foreign buyers in India despite commercial surrogacy being legal in their own countries or states.So not only is there “no proof that altruistic surrogacy will hold back the commercial market”, but Ekman also points out that all women get paid in surrogacy anyway. For example with holidays, a new wardrobe, school fees for the gestational mother’s other children, and so on.Whether surrogacy is altruistic (in whatever limited sense) or commercial, the fundamental ethical issues remains the same. Ekman sums this up well: “the woman is reduced to a container . . . Pregnancy is made into a function that serves others. Functionalisation always precedes commercialisation, as we have seen in prostitution. In order for something to be sold as separate from the seller, it must first be constituted as a separate function. What happens in the rhetoric of altruistic surrogacy is that it subversively accustoms people to seeing pregnancy as something a woman can lend to others—if she is not selling it.”READ MORE: read more